The report is structured in three sections. Section 1 sets out data on long-term trends in UK female employment and on how the UK measures up internationally. Section 2 drills down into the international data to better diagnose the UK’s specific performance issues on female employment with a particular focus on maternal employment. Section 3 describes what countries with better female employment rates do differently from the UK in terms of public spending on family policy. The note concludes by sketching out some general and high-level strategic implications.