Mackenzie outlines a scheme to provide greater adult and community support young people at risk of falling into a life of crime and young offenders. Ippr’s research has already shown that the most prolific criminals begin offending between the ages of 10 and 13, and that a lack of adult support is a key risk factor for young people turning to crime. Simon MacKenzie has proposed creating mentoring circles for these young people, based on a model already used in Canada. The aim of the circles to prevent young people offending in the first place, and to prevent re-offending by young people who have already committed a crime. Each ‘circle’ would consist of three to give adult volunteers who would meet regularly with the young person to offer mentoring, and support with problems that could lead to offending and re-offending. The cost of running each circle would be £9,000 per year, compared to the annual cost of £40,000 for a young person in the criminal justice system.