There is considerable policy interest in the use of incentives to promote positive behaviour in children and young people. However, there is uncertainty about whether this approach works, and if so, what the underlying mechanisms are. This report summarises ongoing activity in the use of incentive schemes both in the UK and internationally. This systematic review was published by EPPI-Centre in 2005. Systematic reviews aim to find as much as possible of the research relevant to the particular research questions, and use explicit methods to identify what can reliably be said on the basis of these studies.