This research studied Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Ghanaian and white English working-age people living with long-term ill health. It found that the effect of long-term ill health in reducing chances of employment was similar across ethnic groups. Individuals with long-term conditions required substantial flexibility in employment, due to pain, fatigue, unpredictable symptoms and health appointments; this could conflict with employers' needs for reliability.
Minority ethnic individuals were less likely than white people to receive 'sickness' benefits. The system was seen as making it difficult to receive these benefits and financial hardship was common.